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SEP 2017

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coffee variant of the employee when he or she approches the machine). The smart applications that are expected to support productivity mostly concerned either features of the work environment (automatic printer and meeting room allocation), ways to eliminate negative conditions caused by the work environment (noise cancelling), and support in fi nding colleagues elsewhere in the building (colleague locator). When considering the implementation of smart applications in an organization, a viable business case is needed to get approval by the board. Business cases are generally made on a monetary level; therefore, it is necessary to monetize the added value that smart applications provide. Since many of the smart applications in this study were expected to support employees' satisfaction, increased satisfaction should be monetized to make the business case work, which is not easy. Another point of attention for business cases is that it could be important to consider a long running time. The investment cost for smart applications can be quite high since these applications are generally new and innovative. Therefore, a longer business case can provide the adequate time to break even. As some smart applications are specifi cally expected to reduce the real estate costs, such applications could make the total business case of a smart building more appealing. These smart applications mostly related to the automatization of facility services (cleaning control, waste basket monitoring, robot security). When implementing smart applications, CRE managers can run into resistance, as some employees may be sensitive to feelings of privacy loss. During the interviews, three focus points came forward that make it more likely that a smart application is perceived positively by the employees. First of all, it is desired that the smart application provides (perceived) personal control to employees, as long as the application is as simple as possible to use in order for employees not to waste time trying to understand and/or control it. Secondly, when the smart application relates to a user's strong preference, it is likely that it increases the employee's satisfaction more than when it only solves a problem (e.g., noise). Thirdly, it is important that both the result and the process of implementing the smart application are visible for employees. When an offi ce feature or facility is already suffi ciently well-developed, and when the offi ce feature or facility does not cause any (large) problems, it is diffi cult to improve satisfaction or to save money with the feature or facility by making it 'smart'. Conclusion and recommendations The results of the questionnaire and the interviews show that the smart work environment is mainly expected to increase employee satisfaction provided the smart applications comply with several preconditions. Since satisfaction is a desired strategic value for many organizations these days, this is good news for both CRE managers and the developers of smart applications. Hardly any smart applications are expected to lead to more fl exibility, which is also an important trend; therefore, it is recommended that application developers create more smart applications for fl exibility, too. When considering a change to a smarter offi ce, the values of the organization should be considered fi rst. If satisfaction, productivity or similar values related to employees' wellbeing are included in the general mission and values of the client, increased satisfaction can be used as an argument for implementing smart applications. When a client values other strategies, such as reducing costs, controlling risks, and/or increasing the value of real estate, it seems less interesting to spend money on smart offi ce applications. Some smart applications can create value for the offi ce building itself, which is positive for the developers and the owners of the offi ce buildings. Most of the smart applications generate a lot of data including valuable information about how the building is being used. It is, thus, important for offi ce developers and owners to discuss the smart work environment concept with the intended user before building or renovating an offi ce building. Since the costs of some smart applications are for the account of the building's owner and some are for the CRE department of the user, it is important that both the owner and the user recognize the benefi ts and are able to come to a fi nancial agreement. Only then will aiming to make your work environment smarter be an interesting, signifi cant business case. ThE lEadER SEPTEMBER 2017 29 Lynn Brugmans recently graduated from the Eind- hoven University of Technology at the master track Real Estate Management and Development. Her master thesis concerned the application of innova- tive techniques in the work environment. Currently, she works as a consultant at Twynstra Gudde. Rianne Appel-Meulenbroek is an assistant professor of CRE management and workplace at the Eindhoven University of Technology whose research focuses on how building design supports an organization. Astrid Kemperman is an associate professor of urban planning and quality of life at the Eindhoven University of Technology whose research focuses on the effects of urban built environments on human behavior. Lynn's supervisor from practice, Lars Dinnissen is a senior consultant in CRE at Arcadis and is special- ized in workplace consultancy and developing and implementing WI concepts. Literature used in survey development Ana Marketing Maestros (2006). Data is the new oil. Retrieved from stros/2006/11/data_is_the_new.html Cook, D.J., Augusto, J.C. & Jakkula, V.R. (2009). Ambient intelligence: technologies, applica- tions, and opportunities. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 5(4), 277-298. Lee, J.H., Morioka, K., Ando, N. & Hashimoto, H. (2004). Cooperation of distributed intelligent sensors in intelligent environment. Mechatron- ics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on, 9(3), 535-543. Quora (2016). Who should get credit for the quote "data is the new oil"? Retrieved from for-the-quote-data-is-the-new-oil Reijula, J., Gröhn, M., Müller, K. & Reijula, K. (2011). Human well-being and fl owing work in an intelligent work environment. Intelligent Buildings International, 3(4), 223-237.

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